- Authors: A. Klivans and D. van Melkebeek.
- Reference: SIAM Journal on Computing, 31: 1501-1526, 2002.
- Earlier versions:
Traditional hardness versus randomness results focus on time-efficient
randomized decision procedures. We generalize these trade-offs to a
much wider class of randomized processes. We work out various
applications, most notably to derandomizing Arthur-Merlin games.
We show that every language with a bounded round Arthur-Merlin game
has subexponential size membership proofs for infinitely many input
lengths unless exponential time coincides with the third level of
the polynomial-time hierarchy (and hence the polynomial-time hierarchy
collapses). Since the graph nonisomorphism problem has a bounded round
Arthur-Merlin game, this provides the first strong evidence that
graph nonisomorphism has subexponential size proofs.
For a randomized procedure to fit within our framework, we only require
that for any fixed input the complexity of checking whether the
procedure succeeds on a given random bit sequence is not too high. We
apply our derandomization technique to four other complexity
The Valiant-Vazirani random hashing technique which prunes the
number of satisfying assignments of a Boolean formula to one, and
related procedures like computing satisfying assignments to Boolean
formulas non-adaptively given access to an oracle for
- The algorithm of Bshouty et al. for learning Boolean
- Constructing matrices with high rigidity.
- Constructing polynomial-size universal traversal sequences.
We also establish hardness versus randomness tradeoffs for space