Project 3: Simple File System
|Controlling complexity is the essence of computer programming.
Due: Monday May 9th, Midnight.|
Etc: This project is to be done with your partner in C (not C++).
You will implement a good portion of a file system. Your file system will be built inside of a user-level library which applications can link with to access files, directories, and so forth. This library is known as LibFS. This library will in turn link with a layer that implements a virtual "disk", known as LibDisk.
We'll start by describing the LibFS API to the file system. There are three parts to the API: a set of calls that deal with file access, a set of calls that deal with directories, and two generic file system calls.
Applications (e.g., your own test applications, and certainly our test applications) will link with LibFS in order to test out your file system.
Your library will be tested on how functions and also particularly on how it handles errors. When an error occurs (each possible error is specified below in the API definition), your library should set the variable osErrno to the error described in the API definition below and return the proper error code. This way, applications that link with your library have a way to see what happened when the error occurred.
1 Boot/Sync API
int FS_Boot(char *path)
2 File Access API
A number of these operations deal with pathnames. Hence, we must make a few assumptions about pathnames. All pathnames are absolute.
That is, anytime a file is specified, the full path starting at the root is expected. Also, assume that the maximum name length of a single file name is 16 bytes (15 characters plus one for an end-of-string delimiter). Finally, assume that the the maximum length of a path is 256 total characters (including the end-of-string delimiter).
int File_Create(char *file)
Note: the file should not be "open" after the create call. Rather,
File_Create() should simply create a new file on disk of size 0. Upon
success, return 0. Upon a failure, return -1 and return
int File_Open(char *file)
int File_Read(int fd, void *buffer, int size)
All reads should begin at the current location of the file pointer, and file pointer should be updated after the read to the new location. If the file is not open, return -1, and set osErrno to E_BAD_FD. If the file is open, the number of bytes actually read should be returned, which can be less than or equal to size. (The number could be less than the requested bytes becuase the end of the file could be reached.) If the file pointer is already at the end of the file, zero should be returned, even under repeated calls to File_Read(). You do not need to use a special byte to represent the end of file.
int File_Write(int fd, void *buffer, int size)
Note that writes are the only way to extend the size of a file. If the file is not open, return -1 and set osErrno to E_BAD_FD. Upon success of the write, all of the data should be written out to disk (to the virtual disk) and the value of size should be returned. If writing size bytes would exceed the maximum file size return -1 and set osErrno to E_FILE_TOO_BIG. In this case do not write any data from buffer to the file. If the write cannot complete (due to a lack of virtual disk space), return -1 and set osErrno to E_NO_SPACE. In this case as much data from buffer should be written to the file as possible.
int File_Seek(int fd, int offset)
int File_Close(int fd)
int File_Unlink(char *file)
3 Directory API
int Dir_Create(char *path)
int Dir_Size(char *path)
int Dir_Read(char *path, void *buffer, int size)
If size is not big enough to contain all of the entries, return -1 and set osErrno to E_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL. Otherwise, read the data into the buffer, and return the number of directory entries that are in the directory (e.g., 2 if there are two entries in the directory).
int Dir_Unlink(char *path)
If any of the above directory functions are given a path that points to a directory that does not currently exist, or the path does not point to a directory, or if the path (or any of its constituent directory names) is longer than the maximum allowed length you should return -1 and set osErrno to E_NO_SUCH_DIRECTORY.
When reading or writing a file, you will have to implement a notion of a current file pointer.
The idea here is simple: after opening a file, the current file pointer is set to the beginning of the file (byte 0). If the user then reads N bytes from the file, the current file pointer should be updated to N. Another read of M bytes will return the bytes starting at offset N in the file, and up to bytes N+M. Thus, by repeatedly calling read (or write), a program can read (or write) the entire file. Of course, File_Seek() exists to explicitly change the location of the file pointer.
Note that you do not need to worry about implementing any functionality that has to do with relative pathnames. In other words, all pathnames will be absolute paths. Thus, all pathnames given to any of your file and directory APIs will be full ones starting at the root of the file system, i.e. "/a/b/c/foo.c". Thus, your file system does not need to track any notion of a "current working directory".
The Disk Abstraction
One of the first questions you might ask is "Where am I going to store all of the file system data?" A real file system would store it all on disk, but since we are writing this all at user-level, we will store it all in a virtual ("fake") disk, provided to you at no cost. In LibDisk.c and LibDisk.h you will find the "disk" that you need to interact with for this assignment.
The "disk" that we provide presents you with NUM_SECTORS sectors, each of size SECTOR_SIZE. Thus, you will need to use these values in your file system structures. The model of the disk is quite simple: in general, the file system will perform disk reads and disk writes to read or write a sector of the disk. In actuality, the disk reads and writes access an in-memory array for the data; other aspects of the disk API allow you to save the contents of your file system to a regular Linux file, and later, restore the file system from that file.
Here is the basic disk API:
Disk_Load() is called to load the contents of a file system in file into memory. This routine (and Disk_Init() before it) will probably be executed once by your library when it is "booting", i.e., during FS_Boot().
int Disk_Save(char* file)
int Disk_Write(int sector, char* buffer)
int Disk_Read(int sector, char* buffer)
For all of the disk API: All of these operations return 0 upon success, and -1 upon failure. If there is a failure, diskErrno is set to some appropriate value -- check the code in LibDisk.c for details.
On-Disk Data Structures
A big part of understanding a file system is understanding its data structures. Of course, there are many possibilities. Below is a simple approach, which may be a good starting point.
First, somewhere on disk you need to record some generic information about the file system, in a block called the superblock.
This should be in a well-known position on disk -- in this case, make it the very first block. For this assignment, you don't need to record much there. In fact, you should record exactly one thing in the superblock -- a magic number.
Pick any number you like, and when you initialize a new file system (as described in the booting up section below), write the magic number into the super block. Then, when you boot up with this same file system again, make sure that when you read that superblock, the magic number is there. If it's not there, assume this is a corrupted file system (and that you can't use it).
To track directories and files, you might need two types of blocks: inode blocks and data blocks.
First, let's examine inodes. In each inode, you need to track at least two things about each file. First, you should track the size of the file. Second, you need to track the type of the file (normal or directory). Third, you should track which file blocks got allocated to the file. For this assignment, you can assume that the maximum file size is 30 blocks. Thus, each inode should contain 1 integer (size), 1 integer (type), and 30 pointers (to data blocks). You might also notice that each inode is likely to be smaller than the size of a disk sector -- thus, you should put multiple inodes within each disk sector to save space.
Second, there are data blocks. Assume that each data block is the exact same size as a disk sector. Thus, part of disk must be dedicated to these blocks.
Of course, you also have to track which inodes have been allocated, and which data blocks have been allocated. To do this, you should probably use a bit map for each, i.e., the first block after the superblock should store the inode bitmap, and the following block(s) should store the data block bitmap.
One painful part about any file system is pathname lookup. Specifically, when you wish to open a file named /foo/bar/file.c, first you have to look in the root directory ("/"), and see if there is a directory in there called "foo". To do this, you start with the root inode number (which should be a well-known number, like 0), and read the root inode in. This will tell you how to find the data for the root directory, which you should then read in, and look for foo in. If foo is in the root directory, you need to find it's inode number (which should also be recorded in the directory entry). From the inode number, you should be able to figure out exactly which block to read from the inode portion of the disk to read foo's inode. Once you have read the data within foo, you will have to check to see if a directory "bar" is in there, and repeat the process. Finally, you will get to "file.c", whose inode you can read in, and from there you will get ready to do reads and writes.
Open File Table
When a process opens a file, first you will perform a path lookup. At the end of the lookup, though, you will need to keep some information around in order to be able to read and write the file efficiently (without repeatedly doing path lookups). This information should be kept in a open file table.
When a process opens a file, you should allocate it the first open entry in this table -- thus, the first open file should get the first open slot, and return a file descriptor of 0. The second opened file (if the first is still open) should return a descriptor of 1, and so forth. Each entry of the table should track what you need to know about the file to efficiently read or write to it -- think about what this means and design your table accordingly. It is OK to limit the size of your table to a fixed size.
The disk abstraction provided to you above keeps data in memory until Disk_Save() is called. Thus, you will need to call Disk_Save() to make the file system image persistent. A real OS commits data to disk quite frequently, in order to guarantee that data is not lost. However, in this assignment, you only need to do this when FS_Sync() is called by the application which links with your LibFS.
When "booting" your OS (i.e., starting it up), you will pass a filename that is the name of your "disk". That is, it is the name of the file that holds the contents of your simulated disk. If the file exists, you will want to load it (via Disk_Load()), and then check and make sure that it is a valid disk. For example, the superblock should have the information you expect to be in there (as described above). If any information is incorrect, you should report an error and exit.
However, there is one other situation: if the disk file does not exist, this means you should create a new disk and initialize its superblock, and create an empty root ("/") directory in the file system. The user of a new file system does not have to create "/". Thus, in this case, you should use Disk_Init() followed by a few Disk_Write() operations to initialize the disk, and then a Disk_Save() to commit those changes to disk.
You do not have to worry about multiple processes or threads using LibFS at the same time.
Caching: Your file system should not perform any caching. That is, all operations should read and write the Disk API. Actually, there is one exception, you can cache the bitmaps. When you update a bitmap you do not have to write it back to the virtual disk immediately. You will need to do so eventually, in FS_Sync().
Directories: Treat a directory as a "special" type of file that happens to contain directory information. The type field in your inode tells you whether the file is a normal file or a directory. Keep your directory format simple: a fixed 16-byte field for the name, and a 4-byte entry as the inode number.
Maximum file size: 30 sectors. If a program tries to grow a file (or a directory) beyond this size, it should fail. This can be used to keep your inode quite simple: keep 30 disk pointers in each inode. You don't have to worry about indirect pointers or anything like that (that a real file system would have to deal with).
Maximum element length in pathname: 16 characters. You don't have to worry about supporting long file names or anything fancy like that. Thus, keep it simple and reserve 16 bytes for each name entry in a directory.
If File_Write() only partially succeeds (i.e. some of the file got written out, but then the disk ran out of space), it is OK to return -1 and set osErrno appropriately.
You should not allow a directory and file name conflict in the same directory (i.e. a file and a directory of the same name in the same directory).
Assuming that the maximum name length of a file is 16 bytes means 15 characters plus one for an end-of-string delimiter.
The maximum length of a path is 256 characters.
The maximum number of open files is 256.
Legal characters for a file name include letters (case sensitive), numbers, dots ("."), dashes ("-"), and underscores ("_").
You should enforce a maximum limit of 1000 total inodes (files and directories). Define a constant internal to your OS called MAX_INODES and make sure you observe this limit when allocating new files or directories.
You can find the code for the project at /p/course/cs537-eli/public/code/simplefs.tar.gz, it contains:
You should not change a single line of code in LibDisk.
You should not change a thing about the interface of LibFS (as defined in LibFS.h).
Besides any new source files you may add, LibFS.c is the only source file you need to modify.
To use a makefile not named "makefile" or "Makefile", just type "make -f Make.main" (for example).
You will need to add the directory which contains your LibDisk and
LibFS shared objects to your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. For
example, the command setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH
/u/e/l/eli/537/p3 to the path to search for shared
objects. You should add this command to ~/.cshrc.local if you
don't want to execute it for every new xterm you use.
You and your partner should come up with a simple and clean design together. This will save you a lot of time. Rushing into code without something to guide you will likely result in wasted time implementing unnecessary features and creating bugs. A simple design can be implemented in about a thousand lines of well-commented code.
Divide and conquer. Figure out what the subproblems are (the following questions force you to do this) and attack each separately. Some subproblems may depends on others. For example, directory operations do not depend on file operations, but the converse is not true, so get the Dir_* functions working before the File_* functions.
When you implement a particular function in the API you might find it helpful to first add a corresponding test (or set of tests) in test.c. Writing the test first will help you understand what exactly you should implement. The test should initially be very simple, add more checks as you implement more of the function. You can use tests.c to chart your progress -- as you go through the project writeup, translate the API specification for each function into a test, or set of tests, for that function. Or just define the test function and jot down some comments indicating the behavior and error cases you want to cover. Running the tests frequently helps ensure you do not break existing functionality when you add new features (this is called regression testing). The tests also make reorganizing and cleaning up your code less risky as you can quickly check if doing so broke anything.
You may find using assertions (see assert(3)) helpful. Asserting that function arguments are not null, or that the value of a variable is within a particular range can help you spot a bug early. This will save you lots of time which would otherwise be spent tracking down a segfault (which is likely the result of using a variable with an erroneous value).
The following questions will help get you started.
Copy all files that are required so that we can just type
This assignment will be graded based on correctness of implementation as well as robustness in the face of poor inputs. This means your program should work under all the test cases all the time. Programs that only partially work or fail intermittently will be penalized. Implication: TEST YOUR CODE THOROUGHLY.