I. Dutra, D. Page, V. Santos Costa & J. Shavlik (2002).
An Empirical Evaluation of Bagging in Inductive Logic Programming. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming, pp. 48--65, Sydney, Australia.
This publication is available in PDF and available in postscript.
Ensembles have proven useful for a variety of applications, with a variety of machine learning approaches. While Quinlan has applied boosting to FOIL, the widely-used approach of bagging has never been employed in ILP. Bagging has the advantage over boosting that the different members of the ensemble can be learned and used in parallel. This advantage is especially important for ILP where run-times often are high. We evaluate bagging on three different application domains using the complete-search ILP system, Aleph. We contrast bagging with an approach where we take advantage of the non-determinism in ILP search, by simply allowing Aleph to run multiple times, each time choosing ''seed'' examples at random.
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