D. Opitz & J. Shavlik (1993).
Heuristically Expanding Knowledge-Based Neural Networks. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1360-1365, Chambery, France.
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Knowledge-based neural networks are networks whose topology is determined by mapping the dependencies of a domain-specific rulebase into a neural network. However, existing network training methods lack the ability to add new rules to the (reformulated) rulebases. Thus, on domain theories that are lacking rules, generalization is poor, and training can corrupt the original rules, even those that were initially correct. We present TOPGEN, an extension to the KBANN algorithm, that heuristically searches for possible expansions of a knowledge-based neural network, guided by the domain theory, the network, and the training data. It does this by dynamically adding hidden nodes to the neural representation of the domain theory, in a manner analogous to adding rules and conjuncts to the symbolic rulebase. Experiments indicate that our method is able to heuristically find effective places to add nodes to the knowledge-base network and verify that new nodes must be added in an intelligent manner.
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