J. Shavlik (1994).
A Framework for Combining Symbolic and Neural Learning. Machine Learning, 14, pp. 321-331.
(The local files are an extended version of the journal article.)
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This article describes an approach to combining symbolic and connectionist approaches to machine learning. A three-stage framework is presented and the research of several groups is reviewed with respect to this framework. The first stage involves the insertion of symbolic knowledge into neural networks, the second addresses the refinement of this prior knowledge in its neural representation, while the third concerns the extraction of the refined symbolic knowledge. Experimental results and open research issues are discussed.
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